Who is Ilham Tohti?

Ilham Tohti (Uighur: ئىلھام توختى‎, ULY: Ilham Toxti; Chinese:伊力哈木•土赫提; pinyin: Yīlìhāmù•Tǔhètí) (b. October 25, 1969) is an ethnic-Uighur Chinese economist based in Beijing. He is known for his research on Uighur-Han relations and is a vocal advocate for the implementation of regional autonomy laws in China, and was the host of Uighur Online, a website that discusses Uighur issues. Tohti was detained shortly after the July 2009 Ürümqi riots by the authorities because of his criticism of the Chinese government’s policies toward Uighurs in Xinjiang. He was later released.

Background

Tohti was born in Artux, Xinjiang Uighur Autonomous Region on October 25, 1969,[1] the son of Mahmud Tiernan Tohti (b. January 25, 1937 in Artux, Xinjiang) and Burhanduxt Meryem Ehlin Tohti (b. October 11, 1941 in Bole, Xinjiang). He graduated from the Northeast Normal University and the Economics School at what was then called the Central Nationalities University, now named Minzu University of China, in Beijing.[1]

In 2006 Tohti founded a website called, Uighur Online, which published articles in Chinese and Uighur in order to promote a greater understanding between Han Chinese and ethnic Uighurs.[1][2] Radio Free Asia called his blog “a moderate, intellectual Web site addressing social issues.”[1] In mid-2008 authorities shut down the website.[2] On several occasions authorities have closed the site.[1] In March 2009 in an interview with Radio Free Asia Tohti criticized the Chinese government’s policies in Xinjiang.[2] He specifically criticized the policy of encouraging Han Chinese migrants to relocated to Xinjiang, claiming that it exacerbated the unemployment problem among ethnic Uighurs in the province.[2] Tohti claimed that while doing research for the Chinese government in the 1990s, he discovered that in Xinjiang there were 1.5 million unemployed workers, out of a population of less than 20 million.[3] In addition, he singled out the governor of Xinjiang, Nur Bekri, for criticism, calling him “unqualified” and stating that “I don’t know how he became governor of Xinjiang, and I don’t recognize him as a qualified governor.”[2] Tohti also called for the full implementation of China’s 1984 Regional Ethnic Autonomy Law.[1]

That same month, Tohti was detained by authorities and repeatedly interrogated.[1] He said that during the interrogations authorities accused him of separatism.[1] In a May 2009 interview with Radio Free Asia’s Uighur service Tohti stated that “…in terms of freedom and democracy, Xinjiang’s situation is the worst of the worst, compared with other regions of China. What I have encountered at this time is typical. My Web site was shut down without notice. I was interrogated many times and threatened. I am a legal Beijing resident, and by law I should not be interrogated by Xinjiang police officials, but it has happened. This shows how long the local authorities’ reach is. They accused me of separatism … But is demanding implementation of the autonomy law separatism?”

Detention and release

On July 5, 2009 ethnic rioting took place between ethnic Uighurs and Han Chinese in Ürümqi, the capital of Xinjiang. The government reported that more than 150 people were killed during the clashes.[1] On July 6 Uighur Online was cited in a speech by Governor Bekri as a catalyst for the violence because it had helped instigate the rioting by spreading rumors.[1][3] On July 6 Tohti told Radio Free Asia’s Cantonese service that he had gathered information about the riots but that he would not release it because the timing was too sensitive.[1][4] On July 7 Tohti reported that police had been watching his home and had called him.[1] Tohti’s last blog entry published on July 7, and now blocked in China, read:

As the editor of Uighur Online, I want only to tell Nur Bekri, ‘You are right, everything you say is right, because you will decide everything. I have already offended too many powerful people, including yourself and others whom I don’t want to and don’t dare to offend. But right or wrong, there will be justice. I always tell myself [to be] cool and calm and make rational analyses. Going to court to resolve disputes is the fairest course of action in a lawful society. I have my own lawyer. When my trial comes up, don’t appoint a lawyer for me. I will refuse any court-appointed lawyer. Even if we say that Uighur Online and outsiders stirred thing up—stirred what up? People can think for themselves. If everything were working so well, why did so many people suddenly come out and riot? I think after this event the central government and the local government should give this some thought.[1]

On July 8, 2009, Radio Free Asia reported that Tohti’s whereabouts were unknown after he had been summoned from his home in Beijing.[1] On July 14, 2009, international news agencies reported that Chinese author Wang Lixiong and his wife Woeser, a noted Tibetan activist, had started an on-line petition calling for Tohti’s release.[4][5] The text of the petition stated that “Professor Ilham is a Uighur intellectual who is well known for his commitment to creating a bridge of inter-ethnic friendship and to resolving conflict. He should not be treated as a criminal.”[6] Within a day the petition had attracted more than 250 signatories, many of them Han Chinese and members of Chinese ethnic minority groups,[4] including Ran Yunfei, a well-known magazine editor and blogger who is of Monguor ethnicity.[3] On July 12 Chinese journalist Huang Zhangjin (黄章晋) wrote a blog entitled “Good-Bye Ilham” that condemned Tohti’s detention.[7] On the same day Wang and Woeser started their petition, PEN American Center issued an appeal to Chinese President Hu Jintao “to express serious concern regarding the detention of Uighur writer, academic, and PEN member Ilham Tohti.”[8] On July 20 Amnesty International issued an urgent appeal calling for Tohti’s release.[9] On August 7 Reporters Without Borders released a report stating that the organization was very worried by the absence of information on Tohti.[10]

Tohti was released from detention on August 23. He has since been released.[11] The international press reported that the release of Tohti and two other Chinese dissidents, Xu Zhiyong and Zhuang Lu, was due in part to pressure on Beijing from the administration of American President Barack Obama.[12][13] After his release Tohti gave a telephone interview to Radio Free Asia.[14][15] In this interview Tohti revealed that he had been confined to his home and a hotel and that he had been in the constant companionship of several police officers.[14][15] While he noted that the police had been “courteous” and “civilized”, he criticized his detention as “illegal” because he had not been charged with any wrongdoing.[14][15] He stated that after his release from detention the police warned him against speaking out against the government’s handling of riots in Xinjiang or else he could “soon be sentenced—be sentenced to death, be ‘dealt with’.”[14][15]

In a further phone interview in February 2011, Tohti stated that a travel ban aimed at preventing him from leaving Beijing had been extended to his family members; this disrupted his daughter’s plans to study in the United States. Tohti ended the interview after five minutes, stating that “Right now someone is with me. I have a lot of things to tell you, but I’m looking at his face and he is very angry.”

References

^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o “Outspoken Economist Presumed Detained”. Radio Free Asia. Retrieved July 12, 2009.
^ a b c d e “Uighur Scholar Calls for Jobs”. Radio Free Asia. Retrieved July 15, 2009.
^ a b c Wong, Edward (July 15, 2009). “Intellectuals Call for Release of Uighur Economist”. New York Times. Retrieved July 17, 2009.
^ a b c “Uighur Scholar’s Release Sought”. Radio Free Asia. 2009. Retrieved July 15, 2009.
^ “Chinese intellectuals call for release of Uighur”. Associated Press. July 14, 2009.
^ “Petition for Ilham Tohti under detention presented by Wang Lixiong”. Boxun News. 2009. Retrieved August 25, 2009.
^ Huang Zhangjin (2009). “再见,伊力哈木”. Bullogger.com. Retrieved August 25, 2009.
^ “PEN Appeal: Ilham Tohti”. PEN American Center. 2009. Retrieved August 25, 2009.
^ “Ilham Tohti”. Amnesty International. 2009. Retrieved August 25, 2009.
^ “A month without word of detained blogger Ilham Tohti”. Reporters Without Borders. 2009. Retrieved August 25, 2009.
^ Wines, Michael (23 August 2009). “Without Explanation, China Releases 3 Activists”. The New York Times. Retrieved 25 August 2009.
^ John Garnaut (August 25, 2009). “Obama behind release of Chinese activists”. Melbourne: The Age. Retrieved August 25, 2009.
^ Gady Epstein (August 24, 2009). “China’s Welcome Gift for Obama?”. Forbes. Retrieved August 25, 2009.
^ a b c d “Uighur Economist Freed, Warned”. Radio Free Asia. 2009. Retrieved August 31, 2009.
^ a b c d “RFA专访:伊力哈木•土赫提透露被软禁经历”. Radio Free Asia. 2009. Retrieved August 31, 2009.
^ “Travel Ban Extends to Family”. Radio Free Asia. 2011-02-10. Retrieved 2011-02-17.

来源:http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ilham_Tohti

Scholar criticized the Chinese Communist Party’s “suppression-only” policy in Xinjiang

Last week two violent clashes broke out in Turpan and
Hotan, Xinjiang province.
After that, the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) politburo
standing committee member Yu Zhengsheng and secretary
of Politics and Law Commission Meng Jianzhu went there
to command the “stability maintenance battle” in person.
This indicates a tougher attitude of the Party toward
Xinjiang’s ethnic issue.
Ilham Tohti, a Uyghur scholar at Minzu University of China
in Beijing, warned that CCP suppression will only result in
stronger resistance from the Uyghur people.
Tohti called on the CCP leaders to change its policy to
avoid antagonizing the whole ethnic group.

July 5th is the 4th anniversary of the July Ürümqi Riots in 2009.

Every year around this time, the CCP sends out many armed
police and armored vehicles to tighten its control over Xinjiang.
According to some human rights organization, the Internet
of many governmental agencies had been cut off.
Mobile phones of governmental employees also stopped
sending or receiving messages.
At Ürümqi’s Xinjiang International Grand Bazaar, armed
police with firearms, shields and helmets patrol the streets.

The Xinjiang Armed Police Force also held a drill with
thousands of police and hundreds of vehicles.
In the meantime, the provincial public security department
issued an order for collecting knives from local residents.
It also offered awards for information of “suspicious
individuals” as part of a firmer crackdown.

Ilham Tohti, criticized the CCP for applying the coercion policy
in his home province and making conflicts among ethnic groups.

Tohti, a Uyghur, is famous for his courage of publicly
speaking out for Uyghur people’s rights.
On July 5th, He published an article on the website
Uyghur Online (uighurbiz.net).
Tohti wrote that: “I know our people very well.

This is a group with their own dream and strong feelings
of ethnic culture and historical tradition.
If given no respect, the Uyghur people may fight back in
every aspect in this open age of the Internet.”

The CCP defined the June clashes in Turpan
and Hotan as “terrorist incidents”.
As a rebuttal, Dilshat Reshit of the World Uyghur Congress

said the clashes were Uyghur peoples’ resistance
against the CCP’s coercion policy.

Political commentator Lan Shu remarked that,

the Uyghur people were suppressed by the CCP not only
in politics, but also in religion and ethnicity.
In such a situation, their resistance is certainly stronger
than that of other Han Chinese.

Lan Shu: ”If the CCP fails to crack down on the Uyghur people,
probably other Han Chinese will follow and resist in even larger scales.
This is why the CCP is so afraid. That’s why it sends out large
numbers of police and troops to the suppression.
At the same time, the propaganda department works hard
distorting conflicts between minority ethnic groups
and the CCP into a ‘sovereignty issue’.”

Lan Shu said, by describing Uyghur people’s requests
as a “sovereignty issue”,
and labeling their resistance as a “terrorist attack”,
the CCP tried to generate fights between ethnic groups.
Especially for Chinese who live in other places, they can easily hold
hostility against the Uyghur people without knowing the truth.

Beijing human rights activist Hu Jia said that, currently China’s
most important conflict is between the CCP and civilians.
This results from violent suppressions of the party
members against ordinary people.
This time the bloodshed clashes in Xinjiang happened
under an intensified control by the CCP police.
This indicated that more Uyghur people are becoming
willing to resist the party at the cost of their lives.

Hu Jia: ”Suppression may not lead to immediate resistance.
Sometimes people dare not to speak it out loud.
However, this does not mean that
there is no grudge in their minds.
If the current dictatorship regime continues in China
without any democratic progress,
we will only see more terror and violence in the future.

The suppression-only policy will only lead to worse ethnic
problems and more violent resistance.”

On July 5th, 2009, massive violent riots broke out in Ürümqi,
the capital city of the Xinjiang.
It was officially announced that 197 were killed and
1721 were injured during the clashes.
However, as the CCP immediately started a news
blackout after the incident.
The real number deaths remain unknown to the world.

http://www.ntdtv.com/xtr/gb/2013/07/06/atext926437.html

学者批北京严管新疆 煽动族群不和

【新唐人2013年07月06日讯】最近新疆吐鲁番以及和田爆发流血冲突事件之后,中共政治局常委俞正声及政法委书记孟建柱赶到新疆亲自〝维稳〞,展现中共对新疆维稳更加强硬的作风。北京〝中央民族大学〞维吾尔族学者伊力哈木.土赫提警告,中共当局一味的打压,只会形成新疆民族更强烈的反弹。他呼吁当局要调整政策,才不至于发展成一个民族的对抗。

7月5号是新疆乌鲁木齐七五事件4周年,每年这个时候,中共当局都会出动大批武警部队及装甲车加强巡逻。据人权组织透露,新疆多个政府部门电脑网路被切断,公务员电话、手机不能发放及接收短讯。而在乌鲁木齐市游客众多的国际大巴扎市集,一群武警手持枪械和盾牌、头戴钢盔在街头四处走动。

驻疆武警部队还举行了万名军警、百辆装甲的演习,同时,自治区公安厅发布通缉令、收缴刀具以及提供悬赏,加大对所谓可疑人士的打击力度。

北京中央民族大学副教授伊力哈木.土赫提(Ilham Tohti)则批评北京当局在他的家乡新疆,实施严厉的高压措施,并且煽动族群不和。

来自新疆,一向敢言并且倡议维护维吾尔族权益的土赫提,7月5号在维吾尔在线网站发表文章说,〝我了解我的民族,这个民族是有梦想的,这个民族是有很强的历史文化、民族传统。他如果不被尊重的话,在这个开放的年代,一个互联网的时代,这个民族他可能会走向全面的对抗。〞

虽然中共当局把6月底在吐鲁番与和田发生的事件,定义为所谓的暴力恐怖事件,但世界维吾尔人大会发言人迪里夏提则指责说,这是中共的高压政策导致的民众反抗。

时事评论员蓝述表示,新疆维族人面临的不只是中共的压迫,他们还要承受信仰和种族的被欺压,在这种情况下,维族人的反抗自然会比其他地区的汉族人民来的激烈。

时事评论员蓝述:〝中共在新疆如果压制不住这种反抗的话,很可能其他省分的汉族人会以它为榜样,进行更大规模的反抗,这是中共最害怕的东西。所以说,中共派出大批的警力和军力,用宣传机器把这个少数民族的人民和中共之间的对立,把它说成了一个主权问题。〞

蓝述认为,新疆维族人的要求被说成是主权问题,反抗说成恐怖行动,中共的目地是挑起族群对立,让内地一些不了解真相的民众,对新疆维族人产生仇恨。

同时,北京维权人士胡佳也表示,现在中国最主要的矛盾,是党民矛盾,是来自于这群手里握着刀把的共产党员对人民的压迫。而新疆事件,当局虽然加强了警力部署,但仍无法制止流血事件的发生,说明有越来越多的维吾尔人愿意冒生命危险,反抗中共的镇压。

胡佳:〝这个矛盾,意识冲突,也许敢怒不敢言,但他不敢言的时候,并不代表他心里没有这种怒火。如果不走民主化的话,中国就是这一党专政的情况下,只会陷入恐怖和暴力,只会采取镇压的形式让民族矛盾越来越激烈,越来越血腥。〞

2009年7月5号,新疆乌鲁木齐市发生了大规模的流血冲突事件,官方公开的数字表示,在冲突中有197人死亡,1721人受伤。由于事发后,中共立即封锁了消息,所以真实死亡人数至今仍然是个谜。

采访/易如 编辑/黄亿美 后制/郭敬

http://www.ntdtv.com/xtr/gb/2013/07/06/atext926437.html

Prof. Ilham Tohti: Beware of the Danger of Exaggerating the Xinjiang Independence Issue

Prof. Ilham Tohti: Beware of the Danger of Exaggerating the Xinjiang Independence Issue

[Translation of a summary of a Radio France International Chinese service interview with Prof. Ilham Tohti on the Radio France International website at http://www.rfi.fr/actucn/articles/111/article_12553.asp ]

Why did three Uighurs immolate themselves near Tianamen? How should we understand the “Xinjiang independence issue”? What are the differences between the Tibet issue and the Xinjiang issue? Should the 17 Uighurs imprisoned at Guantanamo be returned to China or should they remain abroad? The famous Uighur intellectual and head of Uighur Online, Assistant Professor Ilham Tohti of the Central

Don’t Allow a Small Group Be Used to Stereotype an Entire Nationality

On the Xinjiang independence issue, Ilham Tohti believes that the Uighur independence movement certainly exists, but it is outside of China. he doesn’t believe that a Xinjiang independence or East Turkmenistan movement exists openly in Xinjiang today. The Xinjiang independence movement is not as powerful as Westerners think. The issue perhaps arose because the Xinjiang local government exaggerated it.

Riots do occur in Xinjiang, Ilham Tohti says, but there are also riots in interior China. Some riots in Xinjiang have nothing to do with politics. These are being exaggerated. In China there are some violent incidents involving individuals and groups that sometimes develop into riots. Whenever these occur in Xinjiang, however, as long as Uighur are involved, it is just assumed that they are connected to Xinjiang independence and that they were fomented by forces outside of mainland China and so “outside agitators” are held responsible for them. This actually makes relations worse, and damages trust, and creates tensions among the nationalities in Xinjiang, and expands the size of the target that is to be suppressed. If the violent tendencies or independence activities of a small group are imputed to an entire nationality, this is in fact no different from what the East Turkistan organization does as a small group claiming to speak for all the Uighur. This is very dangerous and is harmful to China. Ilham Tohti believes that the strengthening of the legal system and democratization are powerful trends. China’s leaders Hu Jintao and Wen Jiabao over and over that China needs reforms and that government administration should operate according to the rule of law. Local government, however, in some areas goes to extremes.

The Future of the Uighurs is in China

Ilham Tohti said without any hesitation that China is the homeland of the Uighur and the future of the Uihgurs is in China. If you have chosen your future to be in China, then you must uphold the territorial integrity of the country. He believes that some people say that China is getting more and more democratic, and that later it will be possible for Uighur to seize their independence. This is impossible. Moreover, some people believe that independence can be achieved through violence or the power of western countries. This is also impossible.

Let the Seventeen Uighurs in Guantanamo Stay Outside of China

The problem of the 17 Uighurs imprisoned at the U.S. military prison at Guantanamo has once again arisen. The case of these Uighur is very special. The U.S. justice system investigated and found that they are guilty of no terrorist crimes. However, for fear that they would be tortured if they were to be returned to China. However they in no way constitute a threat to China since they have never been involved in terrorist activities. So they should be allowed to stay. This is a problem created by the United States and so the United States should take responsibility for it.

Ilham Tohti is concerned “If these people return to China, it could cause nationality problems within China. This is a sensitive issue. If they were to be executed, it would not only make it an international problem but the Uighur would definitely be unhappy about it and could cause a nationality problem. Therefore, I believe from a humanitarian perspective and from a Chinese domestic perspective, they should stay outside of mainland China.

“If You Meet a Uighur, Dial 911”

Recently three Uighur immolated themselves near Tiananmen. Ilham Tohti began consideration of this issue by discussing the situation of Uighur living in Beijing. There are many Uighur in Beijing. Some come to present petitions to the central government redress grievances. Some are peasants who can’t speak Chinese and have never been to Beijing before. Since they are Uighur, most hotels won’t accept them. “We made a study just before the Beijing Olympics. Some authority issued an urgent notice that said: “What do you do if you meet a Uighur? Dial 911”

The causes of all this, says Ilham Tohti, is that the rights of the Uighur nationality have certainly been infringed upon and that local government in Xinjiang has exaggerated the threat from the East Turkistan independence organization. Moreover, most Han people have never met a Uighur in their entire lives so they don’t understand them. Although there are 8 million Han people living in Xinjiang, they are in a very special situation. One third of them are in the military construction corps (bingtuan). Many are government or Party cadres. Some others work for energy companies that employ almost no Uighur. Most factory works and labor intensive industries also employ few Uighur. Therefore, the Han in Xinjiang really don’t understand the Uighur. What people in Beijing know about Uighur comes only from exaggerated propaganda put out by the government or connected to their feelings about the migrant worker population. “Now it seems like the Uighur in the old days who were good at singing and dancing are not to be found. The memory of the humor of Afanti, they have forgotten. Now the Uighur are terrorists, thieves and roving bands of juvenile delinquents.” Thus the image that society at large has of the Uighur is highly distorted.

The Han Nationality Bears the Major Responsibility that the Nationalities Understand One Other

How can the Uighur, other nationalities and the Han come to understand each other better? How can the culture, religion and language of the Uighur and other minority nationalities be better protected? How can the Uighur, other nationalities and the Han come to understand each other better? How can the culture, religion and language of the Uighur and other minority nationalities be better protected?

Ilham Tohti says that present laws are very good, but need to be better and the law needs to be implemented. The Han nationality population is very large and has historically had a strong ideology of unification that makes it hard for them to understand other nationalities. The Han nationality needs to understand, that there exist other nationalities beside yourselves in this country. The Han nationality, to speak bluntly, is the nationality in charge in China. They have the responsibility to run this country well and they have the responsibility to understand other nationalities. They need to give them opportunities. Whatever he thinks, you need to make the effort to communicate. True representatives of the various nationalities should participate in devising some policies. Some research studies should be jointly conducted by Han nationality scholars and Uighur nationality scholars. Some fields should be opened up to research. For example in the Xinjiang region there are no “ethnic studies” etc. This kind of research is in fact prohibited. Although there are no written rules prohibiting this kind of research, there are many unwritten rules.

Ilham Tohti said that many people don’t understand the real situation in Xinjiang, including many Chinese scholars. Some of the so-called scholars researching Xinjiang participate in some government decision-making. But they don’t understand Xinjiang and they can’t speak Uighur. Some scholars in order to curry favor with leaders, make up a conclusion and they make a survey report to support it. One example is a research group studying the Uighur nationality concluded that the Uighur identify more strongly with China than do the Han nationality. Therefore, they need to first understand a nationality before they can create the correct policy.

Listen to the interview for more details.

[Click on the box labeled “Citizen’s Square” Gongmin Guangchang just below the Chinese text to hear the Radio France International Chinese language service March 2009 interview with Professor Ilham Tohti at http://www.rfi.fr/actucn/articles/111/article_12553.asp ]

http://gaodawei.wordpress.com/2011/05/26/%E7%BF%BB%E8%AF%91%E6%91%98%E8%A6%81%EF%BC%9A%E4%BC%8A%E5%8A%9B%E5%93%88%E6%9C%A8%E5%9C%9F%E8%B5%AB%E6%8F%90%EF%BC%9A%E8%AD%A6%E6%83%95%E6%8A%8A%E7%96%86%E7%8B%AC%E9%97%AE%E9%A2%98%E6%89%A9%E5%A4%A7/

伊力哈木土赫提:警惕把疆独问题扩大化的危险

翻译摘要:伊力哈木土赫提:警惕把疆独问题扩大化的危险
Posted on 2011/05/26 by gaodawei
公民广场

伊力哈木土赫提:警惕把疆独问题扩大化的危险

作者 安德烈

发表日期 07/03/2009 更新日期 11/03/2009 00:38 TU

发表评论

为什么三名新疆人要在天安门附近自焚?如何看待“疆独”问题?西藏问题与新疆问题有何不同?17名关塔纳摩维吾尔族囚犯究竟应该留在境外还是应遣返中国?知名维族知识分子,『维吾尔在线』网站站长、中国中央民族大学副教授伊力哈木.土赫提就此一一回答了我们提出的问题。

不要用少数人去绑架整个一个民族

关于疆独问题,伊力哈木.土赫提认为,疆独组织的确存在,但可能就在境外。他不相信新疆境内有公开的分离组织或者东突组织。新疆的独立运动并没有西方人理解的那么厉害。问题可能出在新疆地方当局搞扩大化。

关于暴力活动,他认为新疆有,中国国内其他地方也存在。但新疆发生的部分暴力活动跟政治并没有关系。这也是在搞扩大化。在中国内地发生了一些个人的,或者群体的事件,甚至走向暴力的骚乱。一旦在新疆发生同样性质的事件,只要跟维吾尔族有关,就会被认为跟疆独有关,跟境外有关,就会被归类为“三种势力”。这样做实际上加剧了新疆各民族之间的不信任和紧张关系,扩大了打击面。用少数人的暴力倾向或者独立运动去绑架整个一个民族,这就跟东突以自己少数人的极端行为绑架一个民族没有区别,这种做法极其危险,对国家不利。伊力哈木.土赫提认为法制化,民主化是大势所趋。中国领导人胡锦涛,温家宝都一再强调国家必须改革,必须依法执政,但是,作为地方政府,反而它在有些方面自己走向了极端。

维族人的前途在中国

伊力哈木.土赫提毫无犹豫地指出,中国是维族人的祖国,维族的前途在中国。既然你选择了你的前途在中国,那你就得维护这个国家的统一。他认为,有些人指望将来中国实现了民主化,然后就有可能争取独立,这是不可取的;同时那种认为可以通过暴力或者依靠西方的力量来争取独立也是不可取的。

伊力哈木.土赫提表示,1949年之后中国历史上第一次以宪法形式确认各民族是平等的,同时也是一个多民族国家,随后新疆实行了民族区域自治。宪法规定这是中国的基本制度之一。但是,民族区域自治这个制度落实得不好,结果,法律成了一纸空文。他认为,在维护国家统一前提下,实现自治,落实和完善自治法,这就是维族人的前途,也是国家的前途。

请让17名在关塔纳摩关押的维族人在境外留下来

17名仍关押在关塔纳摩美军监狱的新疆维族人何去何从的问题再次浮上水面。这些维族人的情形非常特殊,美国司法部一方面查实他们没有任何恐怖主义罪行,但由于担心这些人返国后会遭到酷刑,至今仍然把他们关在关塔纳摩。奥巴马担任总统后,决定在年内关闭关塔纳摩监狱。美国希望能找到第三国接待出狱的人。与此同时,中国最近屡次提出遣返17名维族人的要求。然而,一些人权组织反对这样做,他们担心这些人被送回去后被处死。

伊力哈木.土赫提认为,从人道立场和中国国内的实际情形考虑,他希望17名维族人能在境外留下来。

“我觉得,从人道的角度,他们应该留下来。可能我这样说,我们的政府不理解。为什么那么说呢?因为国内的环境,一个是真的有死刑存在;另外一个,从以前新疆的经验来看,同样的案犯全是处以极刑”。

伊力哈木.土赫提认为,既然这些人在美国那么多年,已经判定他们无罪,或者认定他们没有威胁,那么他们又没有实际上或者实质上对中国的利益构成直接的伤害,比如说从事过恐怖活动。就应该考虑让他们留下来。既然这个问题是美国制造的,美国也应该对这17个人承担责任。

伊力哈木.土赫提担心:“如果让这些人回到中国,也可能在国内引起一些民族问题。这本来是一个敏感的事件,如果把他们处以极刑,除了国际问题外,新疆维吾尔族肯定不满,又成了一个民族问题。所以,我觉得,从人道,从国内的角度看,他们应该留下来,在境外留下来。

“遇到维族人怎么办?打110”

最近在天安门附近发生三名上访的新疆人自焚事件,借这个话题,伊力哈木.土赫提同我们谈起了在京维族人的处境。北京现在有很多维族人。有些是来上访的。许多是农民,不懂汉语,从前从未来过北京。由于维族人的身份,多数旅店不让他们住。“我们在北京奥运前搞过一个调查,有关当局发的紧急通知上面写着:遇到维族人怎么办?打110”。

究其原因,伊力哈木.土赫提认为一方面维族人的有些权益确实受到了侵害;另一方面也同新疆地方政府扩大东突威胁有关。其次,绝大多数汉族一生中同维族人没有接触,因此不理解。虽然在新疆生活着八百万汉族,但他们的情况很特殊。三分之一在兵团。还有很大一部分是干部。另外能源企业几乎不接受维族,当地主要的产业工人队伍,劳动密集型行业的人也跟维族没有关系。因此,新疆的汉族其实也并不理解维族。至于北京许多人对维族的了解也仅仅来源于地方政府的扩大化宣传,或者就是通过流动人口来感受:“于是,从前的能歌善舞好客的维吾尔族不见了,阿凡提的幽默也在他们的心目中消失了。维族人成了恐怖分子,小偷、流浪儿童的代号”。因此,平时社会上对维吾尔族的形象都是扭曲的。

汉族作为大民族要主动承担各民族互相沟通的责任

如何能够同其他人,同汉族更好地相互理解,同时又能更好地保护维族人和其他少数民族的的文化、宗教、和语言呢?伊力哈木.土赫提认为现有的法律很好,但需要完善,要落实法律;其次,汉族人口众多,历史上就有大一统思想,不容易理解其他民族。汉族应该明白,这个国家除你之外还存在着别的民族。汉族说白了就是中国的执政民族,有责任搞好这个国家,有责任主动地了解别的民族,同时得给他们给机会。他想什么,你得跟他沟通。真正的民族的代表得参加有些决策的制定。有些调查研究需要汉族学者和维族学者一块做。有些领域要开放。比方说新疆地区就没有『民族学习』等等,这些研究实际上是禁止的。虽然没有明确的规定,但有很多潜规则。

伊力哈木.土赫提指出,新疆的实际情况,很多人不理解,包括学者在内。一些研究新疆的所谓的专家,他们参加一些政府的决策。但也根本不了解新疆,不懂维吾尔语。有些学者甚至为了讨好领导,先制造一个结论然后再拿出一个调查报告。比如,有一个研究小组的报告说维吾尔族的国家认同高于汉族就属于此类。因此,首先得了解这个民族,才能制定出正确的政策。

http://gaodawei.wordpress.com/2011/05/26/%E7%BF%BB%E8%AF%91%E6%91%98%E8%A6%81%EF%BC%9A%E4%BC%8A%E5%8A%9B%E5%93%88%E6%9C%A8%E5%9C%9F%E8%B5%AB%E6%8F%90%EF%BC%9A%E8%AD%A6%E6%83%95%E6%8A%8A%E7%96%86%E7%8B%AC%E9%97%AE%E9%A2%98%E6%89%A9%E5%A4%A7/

Call for Letters on Behalf of Ilham Tohti of China

From: Scholars at Risk Network
Re: Call for Letters on Behalf of Professor Ilham Tohti of China
Date: February 12, 2013

Scholars at Risk is concerned over public reports that Professor Ilham Tohti, a public intellectual and economics professor from China, was denied permission to leave China to take up a position as a Visiting Scholar at Indiana University in the United States.

SAR asks for letters, faxes and emails respectfully urging the appropriate authorities to inquire into the matter and explain publicly the circumstances of any restrictions on Professor Tohti’s travel or, if there are no official restrictions, to expedite approval of any pending or future travel requests.

Scholars at Risk (SAR) is an international network of over 300 universities and colleges in 34 countries dedicated to promoting academic freedom and its constituent freedoms of thought, opinion, expression, association and travel. In cases involving alleged infringement of these freedoms, SAR intervenes hoping to clarify and resolve matters favorably.

Background

Professor Tohti is a professor at the Central Minorities University in Beijing, and he was invited by Indiana University to take up a one-year position as a Visiting Scholar. Scholars at Risk understands that Professor Tohti and his daughter attempted to depart for the United States on February 2nd but were prevented from boarding an outbound plane from Beijing Capital International Airport. Reports indicate that Professor Tohti and his daughter were going through airport security checks when they were stopped by police. Furthermore, SAR understands that Professor Tohti and his daughter were held in separate interrogation rooms, and while Professor Tohti’s daughter was permitted to depart for the United States on a later flight, Professor Tohti was held in custody for 10 hours, before being sent back to his apartment without explanation.

Free exchange of ideas is one of the most basic human rights and values of all academic communities. Freedom of travel is one of the most important avenues for furthering such exchange among academic colleagues. Recognizing this, the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, to which China is a signatory, protects freedom of expression, right to travel and scientific exchange. Public reports that Professor Tohti was denied permission to travel to take up a position at Indiana University suggest that these rights have not been respected. Therefore, in the absence of any clearly legitimate, publicly expressed grounds for doing so, the apparent restricting of Professor Tohti’s travel suggests serious concerns not only about his ability to engage with colleagues in his field, but also about intimidation of intellectuals generally in China and about the ability to conduct world-class scholarship in such an environment. These are suggestions SAR finds particularly distressing given both China’s rich intellectual history and the important role that China and Chinese universities and scholars in particular should play in the development of knowledge, research and scholarship in the 21st century.

Scholars at Risk therefore respectfully urges the appropriate authorities to investigate the situation and to explain publicly the circumstances of any restrictions on Professor Tohti’s travel or, if there are no official restrictions, to expedite approval of any pending or future travel requests.

Take Action

Scholars at Risk invites letters, emails and faxes be sent:

- respectfully urging the appropriate authorities to investigate the situation;

- respectfully urging the appropriate authorities to explain publicly the circumstances of any restrictions on Professor Tohti’s travel; or, if there are no official restrictions, to expedite approval of any pending or future travel requests.

PLEASE WRITE TO:

President Hu Jintao
The State Council General Office
2 Fuyoujie
Xichengqu
Beijingshi 100017
People’s Republic of China

COPIES TO:

H.E. Mr. Yang Jiechi
Minister of Foreign Affairs
Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the People’s Republic of China
No. 2, Chaoyangmen Nandajie, Chaoyang District, Beijing, 100701
CHINA
Email:webmaster@mfa.gov.cn

The Honorable _________
Ambassador of the People’s Republic of China to [YOUR COUNTRY]
[POSTAL ADDRESS]
[FAX]
[EMAIL]
(See http://www.fmprc.gov.cn/eng/wjb/zwjg for a list of Chinese embassies worldwide.)

The Honorable _________
Ambassador of [YOUR COUNTRY] to the People’s Republic of China
[POSTAL ADDRESS]
[FAX]
[EMAIL]

The Honorable John F. Kerry
Secretary of State
United States of America
U.S. Department of State
2201 C Street NW
Washington, DC 20520 USA

Scholars at Risk
New York University
194 Mercer Street, 4th Floor
New York, NY 10012, USA
Email: scholarsatrisk@nyu.edu

Fax: +1 212-995-4402

source:http://www.aaas.org/page/aaas-action-alerts-2013#tohti_ilham_feb_2013

维吾尔学者伊力哈木·土赫提为民族而奋斗

民权活动家誓言为争取民族的权利与尊严斗争到底。

Ng Tze-wei 南华早报(South China Morning Post)
2010年5月31日

伊力哈木·土赫提(IlhamTohti)虽得到了在国外任教的机会,但是依旧坚持在中国生活和写作。(图片描述)

在去年七月乌鲁木齐爆发骚乱时被逮捕之后,居住在北京的维吾尔学者伊力哈木·土赫提(Ilham Tohti)才被大多数人知晓。他创办的关注新疆问题的中文网站“维吾尔在线”(uighurbiz.cn)也因“煽动言论和散布谣言”而遭到当局的抨击。

但是现年41岁的伊力哈木说17年前他已开始就维吾尔人的生存困境问题开始写作,从那时起政府采用的不同形式的监视与骚扰成为他及其家人生活的一部分。

去年两个月的拘留(在家和在宾馆期间他与外界的通信受到严格限制)是他到目前为止经历的最长的一次。从黎明一直持续到黄昏的“聊天”让他精疲力尽。偶尔,也会发生让人们觉得滑稽的事:上个月他本准备去土耳其参加一个学术会议,但在最后一刻被告知禁止出境。作为交换,他和他的家人得以到海南岛“被旅游”。整个旅游过程由政府安全部门的3名工作人员陪同,这些人都十分友好,甚至对他表示了歉意。10天后,即学术会议结束时,他被准许回到北京。

针对此次“被旅游”,伊力哈木表示极度的愤慨,他认为这是对“公民享受出国权利的公然践踏”,事实上,他从去年10月起已经错失了八次出国参加学术交流会议的机会。

伊力哈木时常用顺从的口吻描述对他的种种限制,并且一笑了之。

“我真正想做的是唤起维吾尔人的法律意识,推动国家的法治建设。”近二十年,他一直致力于此,这使他几乎破产,并且与前妻离婚,他离监禁始终只有一步之遥。

他在接受南华早报采访时谈到,他于1991年起在中央民族大学任教至今先后任教过法律、经济,近来他接手了两门较为敏感的课程:《新疆人口资源环境与可持续续发展战略研究》和《中亚政治经济文化》。

“我不支持独立,我也反对流血。中国在发展,维吾尔人在为国家的进步做贡献的同时也可以从中受益。关键是要在新疆实现真正的自治。”伊力哈木说。

本月早些时候召开的新疆工作会议规模空前,会议就“实现新疆的跨越式发展和长期稳定”作出了部署。而伊力哈木对此持谨慎的态度,他认为仅仅提高国内生产总值是远远不够的。

“认真听取维吾尔人的需求和困苦”他说。他还再三强调,维吾尔人是最没有中国人长相的中国人,他们每天都在经历着歧视和排挤。

“我们有自己的宗教信仰、语言、文化和历史,但是鲜有汉族学者学习说维吾尔语或者了解我们。”西方学者则不同,他们怀着尊敬之情和开阔的胸怀研究国家和家乡。

1984年颁布的《中华人民共和国民族区域自治法》明文规定民族地区需实现“真正的自治”。该法律应至少保证维吾尔语是新疆的官方语言之一,并且当地官员都应该学习它;当地人应从经济发展中获益。

实现法治和国内民族的互解是伊力哈木工作的两大基础。

“如果我是汉族,我现在做的这些事情可能不会给我带来麻烦。但因为我是维吾尔人,所以被贴上了分离主义者的标签。”他说。

出生在新疆阿克陶(经核实应该为阿图什,译者注),大学他考入了东北师范大学学习地理学。他在民族大学获得了经济学博士学位(应为经济学硕士学位,译者注)并留校任教。在90年代初,伊力哈木就开始研究新疆的教育和就业问题。

数十年来,伊力哈木从来没有停止帮助在京经济困难的维吾尔族大学生、来京上访人员者和在京生活的维吾尔人。

2006年,伊力哈木创办了“维吾尔在线”网站。他坚持用中文发表关于维吾尔问题的评论和翻译有价值的中文新闻和法律。

伊力哈木1994年在民族大学开办维吾尔语沙龙,并于2003年起面向公众演讲。进行演讲时,他经常偏离主题谈论起与新疆有关的热点话题。演讲总是不能按照计划的时间进行,而且还要看学校的善意。

本月初,伊力哈木为30名听众(绝大多数是维吾尔族)准备了一次演讲,主题是关于新疆恢复网络服务。“现在当局以此为由来庆祝新疆开放网络,但是当初封网的法律依据又在哪里?”伊力哈木询问在座的听众。

“因特网对我们维吾尔人而言意味着什么?我们可以利用因特网学习我们的语言、历史和信仰,我们可以自由地写作和发表,这在现实生活中是不可能的事情。”

“他们把我们视作极易受外部势力指使的愚昧的群体,那么封闭网络是否想延续这种愚昧呢?”

去年7月6日播出的一则新闻中,新疆维吾尔自治区主席努尔·白克力称热比娅·卡德尔是暴乱的主要煽动者,而伊力哈木紧随其后。

在向中国政府伸出橄榄枝的同时,伊力哈木并没有使自己批评政府政策的声音变得温和一些,他也从不掩饰对沦为政权走狗的部分维吾尔人的蔑视。

伊力哈木在课上模仿曾经监视他的学生以及被他揭发后那些人仓皇而逃的举动时,引来在坐的听众的阵阵笑声。

当人们将他与热比娅相提并论时,伊力哈木会觉得很无奈。他不愿对热比娅这个人多加置评,他只说我和她不一样。

“我有很多次移居国外的机会,国外的大学给我提供了非常丰厚的条件,但是我选择留在中国”伊力哈木说。

“我愿意扮演两个民族之间的桥梁。移居国外,我的确能够享受到更多的自由。可是唯有在此,我才能接触到我的同胞并且为他们说话。”

他希望能够建立维吾尔问题研究中心,他也恳请政府能够允许他这么做,同时在国内设立相关基金。自掏腰包维持网站运营的伊力哈木一个月靠教学工作赚取800-3800元人民币不等的工资。

“国家有针对藏族、满族和部分人口较少民族的研究中心。为什么没有针对维吾尔人的?”伊力哈木质问。他说维吾尔研究中心可以独立或者为政府工作。

伊力哈木认为,对维吾尔人的非法管制和普遍缺乏了解是导致民族生活处境困难和 “7·5”的关键原因。伊力哈木说他有很多汉族朋友,可是绝大多数汉人对维吾尔人持双重态度,这很大程度上是由政府错误的政策以及媒体自相矛盾的描绘造成的。

以宗教信仰为例,“一方面,媒体谴责美国对穆斯林的政策,另一方面,在新疆问题上,媒体又立即站到政府一边,并称美国正在集结伊斯兰世界从而给中国施加压力。”伊力哈木说。

“政府针对伊斯兰的政策同样是很矛盾的,并且按照民族进行不同对待。例如,在回族地区有用阿拉伯语授课的宗教学校,在新疆却没有。”

“当然,像美国这样的多元社会对伊斯兰也有误解,可是他们毕竟有开放的舆论环境来谈论相关话题。”

“传统媒体很少报道伊斯兰,新兴媒体对伊斯兰知之甚少甚至对其持抵触情绪,网上对维吾尔穆斯林的不友善的信息就是真实的写照。”虽然新的法律规定网上的此类言论属于违法行为,但是至今没有被删除。

“政府自己把新疆的宗教事务政治化了。维吾尔穆斯林目前所面对的艰难部分要归结于全球对伊斯兰看法的改变,但更多的还是由国内形势所决定的。”

虽然明白如果自己依旧这么直言不讳,余生可能会在牢狱中度过,但是伊力哈木相信这不会发生。

“我依旧在大学开设讲座。根据我的研究,立法机关针对维吾尔流浪儿童已向全国人民代表大会提请了议案。”

新疆领导人事变动也闪现希望。党委书记张春贤说要“更正过去的错误”。伊力哈木说,因危害国家安全罪而被逮捕的海来提·尼亚孜可能会于近日被释放。

作为昔日北京最富有的维吾尔人,伊力哈木不得不于2008年以半价卖掉了两套位于优越地段的房子,当时他处于安全部门严密的监视之下。他把绝大多数钱给了网站编辑和员工,以使他们移居国外。2008年,网站先后被叫停9次。去年7月,网站服务器被转移至美国。

频繁的警察约见已经给他的家人带来了巨大的压力,他也曾考虑离开北京。他的第二任妻子已经生下了第二个孩子,可是伊力哈木至今还没有见过他的孩子。去年,他被监禁后他的母亲也患上了心脏病。

“我的家人跟着我一起遭罪,我很痛苦,但是我不后悔。如果回溯历史,你会发现有人总是会为国家付出些什么。也许历史选择了我。我也是这么告诉我的家人的。”

伊力哈木的学生,21岁的穆塔力浦·伊明(Mutellip Imin)受到老师的鼓舞,决定在研究生阶段学习社会学。“如果没有人做此事,就不得不由我们自己来做。但是我知道这不是一条平坦的路”穆塔力浦说。

译者:维吾尔在线(中文为“维吾尔在线”首发,转载请说明!)
来源:维吾尔在线 (http://uighurbiz.net/bbs/viewthread.php?tid=230248&extra=page%3D1) _(博讯自由发稿区发稿) (博讯 boxun.com)

来源:http://boxun.com/news/gb/china/2010/06/201006281430.shtml

Uyghur Scholar Takes Aim at College Graduation Ban

Updated at 2:20 p.m. EST on 2013-11-27

A top ethnic minority Uyghur scholar and activist has hit out at moves to ban college students in China’s troubled northwestern region of Xinjiang from graduating unless they pass a test of political views, saying that the policy is “dangerous” and “ridiculous.”

“The Xinjiang authorities are in the process of doing something very dangerous,” Uyghur university professor Ilham Tohti, a vocal critic of China’s policies toward ethnic minority Uyghurs, said in response to official media reports from a regional education conference.

“The way they carry out their anti-splittism campaigns is always less intelligent in Xinjiang than it is in other places,” he said.

“It’s insulting, blatant and draws attention to itself.”

Top regional education officials said this week that their institutions were the frontline in a “life and death struggle” for the people’s hearts, the ruling Chinese Communist Party’s official newspaper in the region, the Xinjiang Daily, reported on Tuesday.

Any students seeking graduation from the region’s colleges will be held back unless they pass a political test which renounces “ethnic splittism,” the paper quoted top officials as saying.

The policy was announced at a regional education conference that set out to make universities and colleges “a main battle front for anti-splittism,” it said.

“Higher education schools should first ensure that the talent they produce have passed in politics, so that they can defend ethnic unity down to the last letter, and oppose ethnic divisions,” the paper quoted Li Zhongyao, Party secretary of Xinjiang University, as telling the conference.

‘Worrying news’

Xinjiang, which came under Chinese control following two short-lived East Turkestan Republics in the 1930s and 1940s, has seen a string of violent incidents in recent years as Beijing tightens security measures and extends house-to-house raids targeting Uyghur families.

Xu Yuanzhi, Party secretary of Kashgar Normal University, vowed to work to oppose “political extremism” there, following the incidents involving mostly Muslim Uyghurs, who chafe under Chinese rule, and police.

“Those students who don’t pass politics, however good they are in their specialist subject, should not be allowed to graduate,” Xu said.

Tohti said the new restrictions showed that Beijing is following a mistaken policy in the restive region.

“In the Internet age, the Chinese authorities’ policy of trying to control ideology and public expression to achieve stability is quite ridiculous,” Tohti said.

Henryk Szadziewski, senior researcher with the Washington-based Uyghur Human Rights Project, said the move was “worrying news.”

“This is a step backwards for Uyghur students in higher education,” Szadziewski told RFA’s Mandarin Service. “Uyghurs are already in a difficult situation, educationally, because all higher education must be carried out in Chinese.”

“Clearly this move is aimed at controlling ideology and scholarship in universities, but the most worrying thing is that students in higher education in Xinjiang will have to be very careful indeed now if they wish to get a degree certificate,” he said.

‘Form of terror’

Uyghurs say they have long suffered ethnic discrimination and oppressive religious controls under Beijing’s policies.

Dilxat Raxit, spokesman for the Munich-based World Uyghur Congress (WUC), said university authorities in the region were also stepping up surveillance of students, encouraging them to report each other for holding the wrong political views.

But he said it was hard to see how the situation could get worse as a result of the policy.

“Even those students who do pass politics, and who do get a degree certificate, won’t be able to get a job when they do graduate,” Raxit said.

“This means that this move by the universities is just a form of terror aimed at political opinion,” he said. “Uyghur students understand this very well.”

He said China’s policies of surveillance and political pressure in Xinjiang would only serve to strengthen the backlash against Beijing in the region.

Terrorism claims

China blamed the East Turkestan Islamic Movement (ETIM) for an Oct. 28 attack, when a vehicle plowed through bystanders on Tiananmen Square in Beijing and burst into flames, killing three people in the car and two bystanders.

However, a different Islamist militant group has claimed responsibility for the incident.

Many Uyghurs refer to Xinjiang, which borders Afghanistan, Pakistan, and the former Soviet Central Asian republics, as East Turkestan.

ETIM seeks independence for the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, and is designated a Foreign Terrorist Organization by the United Nations.

Reported by Xi Wang for RFA’s Mandarin Service and by Hai Nan for the Cantonese Service. Translated and written in English by Luisetta Mudie.

http://www.rfa.org/english/news/uyghur/ban-11272013112752.html